Your Wednesday Briefing

We’re still in the first minutes of the first day of the Internet revolution.  Scott Cook


By Azra Isakovic

Wednesday, March 24

Good morning

Welcome to Your Wednesday Briefing

Featured

Bernie Sanders –An Unusually Optimistic Conversation With Bernie Sanders, Ezra Kleinwith | New York Times Opinion
Analog/Digital –Why Analog Is Better than Digital II , by Francis Fukuyama | American Purpose

Books

Enlightenment The Enlightenment – The Pursuit of Happiness, 1680-1790, Ritchie Robertson | Harper Collins
Review –“The Enlightenment: The Pursuit of happiness, 1680-1790”, Ritchie Robertson | Voltaire Foundation
About : Unsustainable Inequalities. Social Justice and the Environment, by Matthew Soener | Books & Ideas

Must-Reads

Pandemic –Pandemic Theater, The Anniversary Edition | Zeynep
US/EU – The US and the EU: Time for a New “Transatlantic Moment”? Claudia Schmucker and Stormy-Annika Mildner | DGAP
US/Russia –  Why Russia Is the Problem From Hell  Robert Kaplan | National Interest
Russia/China – What Does China’s Latest 5-Year Plan Mean for Russia?  Vita Spivak | Carn. Mos.
NATO –Secretary Blinken’s Moderated Conversation with NATO Secretary General Stoltenberg | United States Department of State
NATO – Enlarging NATO’s Toolbox to Counter Hybrid Threats, Michael Rühle and Clare Roberts | NATO
Russia/Ukraine – Russia and Ukraine Are Not About to Come to Blows  Ekaterina Zolotova | GPF
China/BRI – China’s Belt and Road: Implications for the U.S.  J. Hillman & D. Sacks | CFR
India – India Romances the West  C. Raja Mohan | Foreign Policy
UK – Where Do Boris Johnson’s Nuclear Ambitions Lead?  Gavin Esler | The National
Biden Transition – Biden Wants No Part of the Culture War the G.O.P. Loves, by Thomas Edsall | New York Times Opinion

Research & Analysis

UK –Integrated Review of Security 2021 | Commons Library
UK –Global Britain in a Competitive Age: the Integrated Review of Security, Defence, Development and Foreign Policy | GOV.UK
NATO –NATO in in the Era of Unpeace: Defending Against Known Unknowns, Dominik P. Jankowski and Tomasz Stępniewski, eds. | Institute of Central Europe IEŚ

Podcasts

EU/Russia – Europe–Russia Relations Today, with Kadri Liik and Dmitri Trenin | Sound Cloud

Your Friday Briefing

We should establish a chair for the teaching of reading between the lines.
Leon Bloy


By Azra Isakovic

Friday, March 19

Good morning

Welcome to Your Friday Briefing

Books

Health – The Next Shift : The Fall of Industry and the Rise of Health Care in Rust Belt America, Gabriel Winant | Harvard University Press
Philosophy – In the Shadow of Justice: Postwar Liberalism and the Remaking of Political Philosophy, by Katrina Forrester | Princeton University Press

Must-Reads

Health – The Rise of Healthcare in Steel City, Gabriel Winant | Dissent Magazine
Health/EU – Has the EU Lost Its Mind? Peter Franklin | UnHerd
Nuclear Risk – An existential discussion: What is the probability of nuclear war? By Martin E. Hellman, Vinton G. Cerf | Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists
Vaccination –The Elephant In the Room: Herd Immunity via Tragedy | Zeynep Tufekci
US/Libya – The Libya Allergy, Colum Lynch | Foreign Policy
Mali conflict – ‘It’s not about jihad or Islam, but justice’ Patricia Huon | The Guardian
Europe – Is Denmark creating an inverted-Apartheid? Peter Franklin | UnHerd
US/Strategy – Humility in American Grand Strategy  Mathew Burrows & Robert Manning | WOTR
US/Africa – Understanding the New U.S. Terrorism Designations in Africa  | Crisis Group
Vaccine – Vaccine Suspense: Why Some Countries Are So Cautious  P. Treble | Maclean’s
Germany – Merkel’s CDU Mired in Scandal, Incompetence  Melanie Amann et al | Der Spiegel

Research & Analysis

Germany/US/China – Germany Between a Rock and a Hard Place in China-US Competition, Markus Jaeger | DGAP
US/EU/Technology – What’s Ahead for a Cooperative Regulatory Agenda on Artificial Intelligence? Meredith Broadbent | CSIS
US/Extremism – Domestic Violent Extremism Poses Heightened Threat in 2021 | Office of the Director of National Intelligence
EU/CounterterrorismThe Next Steps for EU Counterterrorism Policy, Raphael Bossong | SWP

Podcasts

Commune de Paris – Les damnés de la Commune, Raphaël Meyssan | ARTE
Histoire – Debout les damnés de la terre, destins de communards, par Xavier Mauduit | France Culture

Commune de ParisDernière révolution avant la République (4/4), par Perrine Kervran | France Culture

Commune de Paris – Les damnés de la Commune, Raphaël Meyssan | ARTE

Your Friday Briefing

History is a set of lies agreed upon. Napoleon Bonaparte


By Azra Isakovic

Friday, March 12

Good morning

Welcome to Your Friday Briefing

Books

Review Essay –  A Tyranny Without Tyrants  Patrick J. Deneen, American Affairs
After the Apocalypse: America’s Role in a World Transformed by Andrew Bacevich | Metropolitan Books
Nonfiction – How Sir Francis Drake and Queen Elizabeth I Made England a Global Power, by Nigel Cliff | The New York Times
Nonfiction – In Search of a Kingdom – Francis Drake, Elizabeth I, and the Perilous Birth of the British Empire By Laurence Bergreen | HarperCollins

Must-Reads


UK –The Green New Deal’s time has come – but where has Labour’s radicalism gone? Adam Tooze | The Guardian
Carbon dioxide –The Negative Part of Net Zero, Noah J. Gordon | Internationale Politik Quarterly
Quad/Indo-Pacific – How Biden Can Make the Quad Endure, Evan Feigenbaum, James Schwemlein | Carnegie Endowment
India/China – China’s Himalayan Salami Tactics Are Working  Brahma Chellaney, Project Syndicate
India/China – India and China Need More Than a Border Pullback  Anubhav Gupta, WP Review
Quad/Indo-Pacific – Is the Quad for Real? We’ll Know More on Friday  Salvatore Babones, Foreign Policy
Biden/Blob – On Shedding an Obsolete Past, Andrew Bacevich | TomDispatch

Quad/Indo-Pacific – The Future of the Quad Is Bright  Jeff M. Smith, RealClearWorld
Balkans – Ethnic Engineering in the Balkans  Aleksandar Brezar, Al Jazeera
Space – Avoiding the Folly of a U.S.-China Space Race  Zhou Bo, SCMP
Taiwan – Supply Chains Critical to Taiwan’s Security  James Lee, East Asia Forum
Data Protection – How Europe’s Intelligence Services Aim to Avoid the EU’s Highest Court | Lawfare
EU/Digital – Why Europe’s Digital Decade Matters by Margrethe Vestager, and Josep Borrell | Project Syndicate

Research & Analysis

AI/Data – Auditing employment algorithms for discrimination, Alex Engler | Brookings Institution
EU/Russia/Counterterrorism – Blurry Counterterrorism: A Chance for Russia, A Risk for Europe, Miriam Heiß | DGAP
EU-China –Towards a Fair and Reciprocal Partnership |  EPP Group

Podcasts

Le Cours de l’histoire – Que nous réserve l’avenir ? Xavier Mauduit | France Culture


Your Monday Briefing

Republicans have nothing but bad ideas and Democrats have no ideas. Lewis Black


By Azra Isakovic

Monday, March 01

Welcome to Your Monday Briefing

Books

Reclaiming Public Ownership Andrew Cumbers | Zed Books
The Problems of Genocide, Dirk Moses | History at Cambridge

Must-Reads

US/Iran – Iran Rejects Nuclear Deal Talks With U.S. , by Farnaz Fassihi & David E. Sanger | The New York Times
Brexit – The Ugly Divorce Between Britain and Brussels Mark Landler | The New York Times
China – The age of empire is back, by Aris Roussinos | UnHerd
Nord Stream 2 – Le gazoduc russe qui sème la zizanie en Europe | Le Monde
Chartbook Newsletter #14 by Adam Tooze
US/China – How to stop China’s long march, by Edward Luttwak | UnHerd
EU – Can the EU survive the death of liberalism? By Larry Siedentop | UnHerd

Research & Analysis

US – United States Counterterrorism Operations 2018–2020, Stephanie Savell, Watson Institute, Brown University [PDF] 📥
Soft Power – Global Soft Power Index | Brand Finance [PDF] 📥
EU/India – Circles of EU-India Engagement | Swedish Institute of International Affairs
Ukraine – Human Rights Violations in the Occupied Parts of Ukraine’s Donbas since 2014, | Swedish Institute of International Affairs

Podcasts

Costs of War – The Human Toll of the Post-9/11 Wars | Brown University

Your Wednesday Briefing

Je ne fais pas de blagues. Je viens de regarder le gouvernement et signaler les faits.
Will Rogers


By Azra Isakovic

Wednesday, February 17

Good morning

Welcome to Your Wednesday Briefing

Books

Remaking Central Europe, Edited by Peter Becker and Natasha Wheatley | Oxford Academic
Power and Time, Edited by Dan Edelstein, Stefanos Geroulanos, and Natasha Wheatley | UChicagoPress
Food insecurity and Revolution in the Middle East and North Africa, Habib Ayeb et Ray Bush,  Anthem Press

Must-Reads

US/China – America’s Best Hope of Hanging Together Is China  Janan Ganesh, Financial Times
US – Don’t Restore U.S. Foreign Policy. Remake It.  Jessica Mathews, Foreign Affairs
China – WHO’s Wuhan Investigation Was Never Going to Satisfy  Joshua Keating, Slate
US/China – When Will Liberals Admit China Is Dangerous?  Kelly McParland, National Post
US/China – America’s Best Hope of Hanging Together Is China  Janan Ganesh, Financial Times
US – Don’t Restore U.S. Foreign Policy. Remake It.  Jessica Mathews, Foreign Affairs
China – WHO’s Wuhan Investigation Was Never Going to Satisfy  Joshua Keating, Slate
US/China – When Will Liberals Admit China Is Dangerous?  Kelly McParland, National Post
US/India/Russia – America’s India Problem Is All About Russia  Salvatore Babones, Foreign Policy
ICBM arsenal – ICBM Setting a Course Away From the ICBM  G. Hinck & P. Vaddi, War on the Rocks
Digital – What the US can teach Europe about privacy, Vincent Manancourt and Mark Scott, Politico
UK/EU – Finding a way forward for EU-UK foreign policy collaboration, Adam Hug, Encompass
US/Europe/China – Beware Beijing’s Long-Term Strategy of Division, Michael Ryan and Valbona Zeneli, National Interest

Research & Analysis

Economy – Global Economic Prospects, The World Bank

Podcasts

Thomas Gomart – Guerres invisibles : nos prochains défis géopolitiques |librairie mollat

Your Tuesday Briefing

La politique est une question trop sérieuse pour être laissée aux politiciens.
Charles de Gaulle


By Azra Isakovic

Tuesday, February 16

Good morning

Welcome to Your Tuesday Briefing

Books

« Boomers » – The men and women who promised freedom and delivered disaster by Helen Andrews | Penguin Random House
Review – Boomers: The Men and Women Who Promised Freedom and Delivered Disaster Kay S. Hymowitz | City Journal

Must-Reads

Poland – Reflections on Poland’s Alliances  Jacek Bartosiak, Geopolitical Futures
US – America’s Other Forever War  Peter Beinart, New York Times
China/Vaccine – Will China Be a Global Vaccine Leader?  Deborah Seligsohn et al, ChinaFile
EU/Foreign Policy – EU Foreign Policy RIP  Matthew Karnitschnig, Politico EU
Germany/Russia – Germany’s Bridges to Russia Split Open Europe  Tony Barber, Financial Times
US – How to Rebuild the State Department  Robert Kaplan, National Interest
China/Uighurs – Uighurs in Exile Wait on the World to Act  Rachel Cheung & Benjamin Wilhelm, WPR

Research & Analysis

Energy/India – India Energy Outlook 2021 – Analysis – IEA [PDF]

Podcasts

Inégalités – Inégalités, précarité, des clés pour les surmonter | France Culture

Revues

Your Monday Briefing

A healthy democracy requires a decent society; it requires that we are honorable, generous, tolerant and respectful. – Charles W. Pickering


By Azra Isakovic

Monday, February 08

Good morning

Welcome to Your Monday Briefing

Books

Public service/Private interests – « The Neoliberal Republic” – by Antoine Vauchez and Pierre France, | Cornell Press


Diplomatie – « Diplomaties européennes XIXe – XXIe siècle. » par Laurence Badel | Presses Sciences Po
Shoah –« Et les Juifs bulgares furent sauvés… » par Nadège Ragaru| Presses de Sciences Po UE/Commission européenne – Un sociologue à la Commission européenne par Frédéric Mérand | Presses Sciences Po

Must-Reads

US/Capital/Jobs – What Happened to Social Mobility in America? By Branko Milanovic | Foreign Affairs
EU-China – The new EU-China trade deal is driven by a commercial realpolitik – and the world knows it by Helen Thompson | New Statesman  
US/Japan/China – U.S. and Japan Should Prepare for War With China  Jeffrey Hornung, WOTR
Russia – Putin’s Russia Destabilizes From Within  Tatiana Stanovaya, Financial Times
US – The Fracturing of the American Ideal  Andrew Michta, National Review
Russia – Navalny Proves Too Hot for ‘Poisoner Putin’  Paul Roderick Gregory, The Hill
Biden – Biden Is Right to Double Down on the Quad  Tom Rogan, Washington Examiner
Arms Control – The End of Arms Control as We Know It  Eugene Rumer & Richard Sokolsky, Politico


India – The Unyielding Middlemen: India’s Protests  Vishnu Modur, Notes on Liberty
India – Huge Turnout of Women Farmers at Mahapanchayats  Ashok Kumar, The Hindu
EU – Scandals Roil Europe’s Border Agency  Giorgos Christides et al, Der Spiegel
Myanmar – The Coup in Myanmar: Why Now?  Phillip Orchard, Geopolitical Futures
Jürgen Habermas – Why Jürgen Habermas Disappeared  Blake Smith, Foreign Policy

Research & Analysis

Sahel – A Course Correction for the Sahel Stabilisation Strategy | Crisis Group


Facial Recognition – Transparency and Accountability Mechanisms for Facial Recognition | German Marshall Fund

Podcasts

Les contours de la Shoah en Bulgarie, avec Nadège Ragaru | Paroles d’histoire podcast 

La Chine, l’Inde et la montée de «l’état civilisationnel» par Gideon Rachman

http___com.ft.imagepublish.upp-prod-eu.s3.amazonawsCette idée illibérale fait attirer certains de la droite américaine aussi.

Le XIXe siècle a popularisé l’idée de «l’état-nation». Le XXIème pourrait être le siècle de «l’état civilisationnel».

Un état de civilisation est un pays qui prétend représenter non seulement un territoire historique ou une langue ou un groupe ethnique particulier, mais une civilisation distincte. C’est une idée qui gagne du terrain dans des états aussi divers que la Chine, l’Inde, la Russie, la Turquie et même les États-Unis.

La notion d’état civilisationnel a des implications nettement illibérales. Cela implique que les tentatives visant à définir les droits de l’homme universels ou des normes démocratiques communes sont erronées, chaque civilisation ayant besoin d’institutions politiques reflétant sa propre culture. L’idée d’un état civilisationnel est également exclusive. Les groupes minoritaires et les migrants peuvent ne jamais s’intégrer car ils ne font pas partie de la civilisation fondamentale.

china-wave001L’essor de la Chine est l’une des raisons pour lesquelles l’idée d’un état civilisationnel est susceptible de gagner un terrain plus grand. Dans des discours devant des audiences étrangères, le président Xi Jinping aime souligner l’histoire et la civilisation uniques de la Chine. Cette idée a été défendue par des intellectuels progouvernementaux, tels que Zhang Weiwei de l’Université de Fudan. Dans un livre influent intitulé «La vague chinoise: l’émergence d’un État civilisationnel», M. Zhang affirme que la Chine moderne a réussi parce qu’elle a abandonné les idées politiques occidentales – et a plutôt adopté un modèle enraciné dans sa propre culture confucéenne et ses méritocratiques fondés sur des examens des traditions.

Zhang adaptait une idée élaborée à l’origine par Martin Jacques, un écrivain occidental, dans un livre à succès, When China Rules The World. «L’histoire de la Chine en tant qu’état-nation», affirme M. Jacques, «ne date que de 120 à 150 ans: son histoire civilisationnelle remonte à des milliers d’années». Il estime que le caractère distinct de la civilisation chinoise conduit à des normes sociales et politiques très différentes de celles prévalant en Occident, notamment «l’idée que l’état devrait être fondé sur des relations familiales [et] une vision très différente de la relation entre l’individu et la société, cette dernière étant considérée comme beaucoup plus importante».

Comme la Chine, l’Inde compte plus d’un milliard d’habitants. Les théoriciens du parti au pouvoir, le Bharatiya Janata, sont attirés par l’idée que l’Inde est plus qu’une simple nation – qu’elle est plutôt une civilisation distincte. Pour le BJP, le trait le plus distinctif de la civilisation indienne est la religion hindoue – une notion qui relègue implicitement les musulmans indiens à un deuxième niveau de citoyenneté.71xvKD4y-qL

Jayant Sinha, un ministre du gouvernement de Narendra Modi, affirme que les pères fondateurs de l’Inde moderne, tels que Jawaharlal Nehru, ont adopté à tort les idées occidentales telles que le socialisme scientifique, les considérant comme universellement applicables. Au lieu de cela, ils auraient dû fonder le système de gouvernance post-coloniale de l’Inde sur sa propre culture. En tant qu’ancien consultant McKinsey avec un MBA de Harvard, M. Sinha pourrait ressembler à l’archétype des valeurs «mondialistes». Mais quand je l’ai rencontré à Delhi l’année dernière, il prêchait le particularisme culturel, affirmant que «à nos yeux, le patrimoine précède l’état. . . Les gens sentent que leur patrimoine est assiégé. Nous avons une vision du monde fondée sur la foi par opposition à la vision rationnelle et scientifique. ”

Les conceptions civilisationnelles de l’état gagnent également du terrain en Russie. Certains des idéologues autour de Vladimir Poutine adhèrent désormais à l’idée que la Russie représente une civilisation eurasienne distincte, qui n’aurait jamais dû chercher à s’intégrer à l’Occident. Dans un article récent, Vladislav Surkov, proche conseiller du président russe, a déclaré que les « efforts infructueux répétés de son pays pour faire partie de la civilisation occidentale sont enfin terminés ». Au lieu de cela, la Russie devrait adopter son identité de « civilisation qui a absorbé l’est et l’ouest » avec une « mentalité hybride, un territoire intercontinental et une histoire bipolaire. C’est charismatique, talentueux, beau et solitaire. Juste comme un métis devrait être. »

Dans un système global façonné par l’Occident, il n’est pas surprenant que certains intellectuels des pays tels que la Chine, l’Inde ou la Russie devraient insister sur le caractère distinct de leurs propres civilisations. Ce qui est plus surprenant, c’est que les penseurs de droite aux États-Unis s’éloignent également de l’idée des «valeurs universelles» – en faveur de l’accent mis sur la nature unique et prétendument menacée de la civilisation occidentale.

Steve Bannon, qui a été brièvement chef stratège à la Maison Blanche  de Trump, a maintes fois répété que la migration de masse et le déclin des valeurs chrétiennes traditionnelles minent la civilisation occidentale. Pour tenter de mettre fin à ce déclin, M. Bannon participe à la création d’une «académie pour l’Ouest judéo-chrétien» en Italie, destinée à former une nouvelle génération de dirigeants.

L’argument des bannonites selon lequel la migration de masse mine les valeurs américaines traditionnelles est au cœur de l’idéologie de Donald Trump. Dans un discours prononcé à Varsovie en 2017, le président américain a déclaré que « la question fondamentale de notre époque est de savoir si l’Occident a la volonté de survivre », avant de rassurer son auditoire que « notre civilisation triomphera ».

Mais curieusement, l’adhésion de M. Trump à une vision «civilisationnelle» du monde peut en réalité être un symptôme du déclin de l’Occident. Ses prédécesseurs ont proclamé avec confiance que les valeurs américaines étaient «universelles» et destinées à triompher à travers le monde. Et c’est la puissance globale des idées occidentales qui a fait de l’état-nation la norme internationale en matière d’organisation politique. La montée en puissance de puissances asiatiques telles que la Chine et l’Inde pourrait créer de nouveaux modèles: un pas en avant, l ‘«état civilisationnel».

Source: China, India and the rise of the ‘civilisation state’

Traduction: A. Isakovic

Reconnecting Asia : Mapping continental ambitions

Competing Visions
A geoeconomic contest is underway to shape Asia’s future. Regional powers are putting forward ambitious plans for building roads, railways, pipelines, and other hard infrastructure across the region. Drawing on official sources, CSIS experts developed the maps below to illustrate some of these competing visions. Each map captures, in broad strokes, the major infrastructure priorities of a leading actor. Collectively, these maps preview a competition as wide-ranging as the region itself. As this story unfolds, the collection below will be expanded and updated.

chinas_vision_10212016

Announced in 2013, China’s “One Belt One Road” (OBOR) initiative drives across the Eurasian landmass in two grand sweeps: the ocean-based 21st Century Maritime Silk Road and the overland Silk Road Economic Belt. As Chinese President Xi Jinping’s signature foreign policy effort, OBOR is striking for its opacity as well as its ambition. On the surface, it imagines a future Eurasia where all routes lead to Beijing. As an open-ended framework, however, the initiative is less clear. It combines new and older projects, covers an uncertain geographic scope, and includes efforts to strengthen hard infrastructure, soft infrastructure, and even cultural ties.

indias_vision_10212016

India’s vision is primarily focused on increasing connectivity within its own borders. Looking outside its borders, India sees the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) as largely paralyzed. Instead, the Modi government is focused on assembling smalls groups of its neighbors or « coalitions of the willing, » in support of its regional economic objectives. Other efforts reflect India’s geopolitical interests. By developing Chabahar Port in Iran, for example, India intends to bypass Pakistan and access overland routes to Europe and Central Asia. Looking even further, Prime Minister Narendra Modi’s “Act East” policy aims to strengthen links between India and ASEAN nations, giving India’s landlocked northeast region better access to its southern ports and establishing new land corridors connecting India to Thailandthrough Myanmar.

japans_vision_10212016
Prioritizing east-west connections, Japan’s vision stems from decades of investing in Southeast Asia, where existing infrastructure reflects the needs of Japanese supply chains, especially maintaining access to the sea. Japan is acting swiftly to defend this incumbent advantage, and has boosted funding to expand “high-quality and sustainable infrastructure” in the region through its Partnership for High Quality Infrastructure. Consistent with the Master Plan on ASEAN Connectivity, Japan is backing a number of new land and maritime corridors that would increase connectivity between the Bay of Bengal and the South China Sea. Japanese Prime Minister Shinzo Abe has also expanded Japan’s diplomatic footprint, becoming the first sitting Japanese leader to visit all five countries of Central Asia.

russias_vision_oct25

Russia’s vision combines soft and hard infrastructure. The Eurasian Economic Union (EAEU) is Russia’s primary vehicle for regional economic integration, and officials have suggested it could be linked with OBOR. Reinforcing its economic and diplomatic pivot to the east, Russia is tapping into the Chinese energy market with a series of proposed natural gas pipelines. To its south, Russia aims to increase connectivity with Azerbaijan, Iran, and India through the North-South Transport Corridor (NSTC). To its north, Russia is planning additional projects to advance its energy and defense interests as the Arctic becomes more accessible.

southkoreas_vision_10212016
President Park Geun-hye’s Eurasian Initiative is expansive, incorporating railways from Seoul to the heart of Europe, shipping lanes through the Arctic, and enhanced fiber optic networks such as the Trans-Eurasia Information Network (TEIN) throughout Southeast Asia. Through increased diplomacy, South Korea is laying the groundwork for stronger relationships in the region and expanding its commercial relationship with Kazakhstan in particular. In light of current geopolitical obstacles, President Park’s initiative appears to contain both diplomatically ambitious and practical plans. Accounting for North Korea, this includes an imagined rail line through the demilitarized zone and an alternative undersea route for bypassing the North and connecting to Russia’s rail network.

turkeys_vision_10212016
Historically, Turkey has been a strategic land bridge connecting Asia and Europe while bypassing Russia. Today, Turkey is enhancing this position with major domestic, sub-regional and trans-national infrastructure projects such as the Baku-Tbilisi-Kars Railway. Turkey also plans to build thousands of kilometers of new roads and railways under the Vision 2023 initiative, which will mark a century since its independence. Collectively, these efforts would expand Turkey’s transportation networks and strengthen their connections with Asia and Europe.

Source: CSIS